Conceptualisations of Gender Equality and Gender Justice in the Baltic and the Nordic Regions: Estonia and Norway Compared




Our paper provides theoretical research on how gender equality and gender justice are conceptualised in general and in Estonia and Norway in particular. The theoretical part examines the origins of the concepts of gender equality and gender justice, emphasising the importance of addressing aspects of recognition and distribution. It then turns to the specific cases of Estonia and Norway, applying this two-dimensional approach. We underscore the contrasting realities in Estonia and Norway: while both countries have legal frameworks for gender equality, there are significant differences in popular support. We also analyse the influence of religious factors on the conceptualisation of gender equality and gender justice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia's complex relationship with religion, influenced by its Soviet past and nationalist sentiments, poses challenges to promoting gender equality. In contrast, Norway's more substantial religious presence, particularly with the role of the Church of Norway, does not seem to have hindered a wider acceptance of gender equality. Understanding the intersection of religious influences, societal contexts and legal frameworks is crucial for advancing gender justice in both countries.